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Lesson Essential actions of the Prayer, its Obligations, Nullifiers, and Dislikes

The prayer has essential actions and obligatory actions, without which the prayer cannot be performed, which will invalidate. In this lesson, you will learn about the essential and obligatory actions of prayer and those things that nullify it and are disliked.

  • Know the essential actions of the prayer.
  • Know the obligatory actions of prayer.
  • Knowing the  things that invalidate the prayer.
  • Learn about the prostration of forgetfulness.
  • Learn about the disliked actions of prayer.

The Pillars and Essential Parts of Prayer

They are the main parts of the prayer that invalidate the prayer if not done intentionally and that which must be performed if left by mistake; otherwise, the prayer is likewise invalidated.

Pillars of the Prayer:

The first takbeer.
Standing if there is the ability.
Recitation of Surah Al-Fatihah.
Standing back up straight if able.
Sitting between the two prostrations.
The last tashahud and sitting down for it.
Tasleem (ending the prayer)
Doing the pillars in order.

Obligatory Parts of the Prayer

If left out deliberately, the obligatory parts of the prayer will invalidate the prayer, but if left out by mistake, then the prayer should be completed, then two prostrations of forgetfulness are offered at the end of the prayer.

The Obligatory Parts of the Prayer

All the takbeers throughout the prayer except the opening takbeer.
Saying: "Glory be to my Lord, the Almighty," once
Saying: "and Allah listens to him who praises Him," whether you are praying alone or you are the Imam
Saying: "Our Lord, to You, is all praise" for everyone.
Saying: "Glory be to my Lord, the Most High" once while prostrating.
Saying: "O my Lord, forgive me" once between the two prostrations.
Reciting the first tashahud while sitting.

These forgotten obligatory acts can be made up with the two prostrations of forgetfulness

Recommended Acts of Prayer (Sunan As-Salat)

The recommended acts of the prayer are words and acts other than the pillars and the essential acts of the prayer. They serve to complement the prayer, and it is recommended to observe them. However, omitting any of these acts does not render the prayer invalid.

Prostration of Forgetfulness

Two prostrations performed to make up for any deficiency in the prayer.

When are the prostrations of forgetfulness performed?

If a person forgetfully or mistakenly adds an extra act (whether assuming an extra standing position, prostrate position, bowing position, or sitting position) in the prayer.
If he leaves out any of the pillars of the prayer, he must add the missing pillar and then perform the two prostrations of forgetfulness at the end of the prayer.
If he unintentionally or forgetfully leaves out any of the essential acts of prayer, such as the first tashahud, he must perform the two prostrations of forgetfulness.
If he doubts the number of the Raka’at performed, he assumes he has performed the lesser number to be on the safe side and performs the two prostrations of forgetfulness.

Description of the Prostration of Forgetfulness

The prostration of forgetfulness can be performed at two different times for the person praying to choose from:

Before the tasleem and after the final tashahud, he prostrates and makes the tasleem.
After the final tashahud, he performs the two prostrations of forgetfulness and then recites the tasleem as he would typically do to conclude the prayer.

Acts that Invalidate the Prayer

Acts that invalidate the prayer and require it to be repeated.

Acts that invalidate prayer

Deliberately leaving a pillar or condition of the prayer while being able to do so. Or out of forgetfulness, not doing something after realizing it.
Leaving any of obligatory acts intentionally.
Deliberately talking.
Laughing out loud
Making unnecessary, continuous movements

Acts Disliked During Prayer

These acts decrease the reward of the prayer and make the concentration and awe of the Prayer disappear.

Turning the head around during prayer

Because when the Prophet ﷺ was asked about turning the head around during prayer, he said: «It is a way of stealing by which Satan takes away a portion from a person’s prayer.» (Al-Bukhari, 718)

Fiddling with hands or face

Placing the hands on the hips and cracking fingers.

To start praying with a preoccupied mind.

Such as the need to answer the call of nature or feeling hungry when attending the prayer, as the Prophet ﷺ said: «No prayer can be correctly offered when food is served before the person praying or when the call of nature occupies him.» (Muslim, 560)

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