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Lesson The Seerah (Biography) of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ

Learning the Seerah (biography) of the Prophet ﷺ from the religion. In this lesson, you will learn a great deal about his life ﷺ before prophethood.

Learning the most important details pertaining to the life of the Prophet ﷺ from his birth until right before prophethood.

The Prophetic Seerah (Biography)

It is upon every Muslim to get acquainted with the detailed biography of the Prophet ﷺ in order to be able to follow him in all aspects of life, as his biography was a practical application of the law and legislation in Islam and its law. Allah the Exalted said: {Indeed, you have a good example in the Messenger of Allah for those who hope in Allah and the Last Day} [Al-Ahzab:21].

1. His Lineage ﷺ

The lineage of the Prophet ﷺ is the best and noblest of lineages, for he is: Muhammad bin Abdullah bin Abdul Muttalib bin Hashim bin Abd Manaf bin Qusay bin Kilab bin Murrah bin Kaab bin Lu'ay bin Ghalib bin Fahr bin Malik bin Nadr bin Kinanah bin Khuzayma bin Madrakah bin Ilyas bin Mudar bin Nizar bin Maad bin Adnan, and Adnan from the sons of Ismaeel (peace be upon him).

2. His Parents ﷺ

His father name was Abdullah bin Abdul Muttalib bin Hashim. His father died while he was pregnant in his mother's womb. And his mother's name was Amina bint Wahb bin Abd Manaf bin Zahra.

3. His Birth ﷺ

He was born Monday in the month of Rabi' al-Awwal during the Year of the Elephant, coinciding with 571 CE.

His Breastfeeding Days ﷺ

Thuwaibah, the slave of Abu Lahab, breastfed him for days. Then he was requested to be breastfed from the tribe of Bani Saad, so Haleemah al-Sa’diyya nursed him, and he lived with her and Bani Saad for about four years. And his heart was opened up there, and his self-inclinations along with the devil were extracted out from it. After this incident, Haleemah returned him to his mother.

5. His Upbringing and Youth ﷺ

After the Prophet ﷺ returned from the homes of Bani Saad to his mother, Amina, in Makkah, he grew up around her. When he turned six, his mother died in Al-Abwa on her way back from from Medina to Mecca. Thus he became an orphan by father and mother.
His grandfather Abdul Muttalib took him back to Makkah, taking care of him and raising him. When he ﷺ was 8 years, 2 months and 10 days old, his grandfather Abdul Muttalib also died in Makkah.
After the death of his grandfather, His uncle Abu Talib raised him and took care of him as one of his own children, even preferring him over them, and especially bestowed him with respect and appreciation. His uncle remained 40 years extending his protection upon the Prophet ﷺ.

His Livelihood ﷺ Before Prophethood

When he was young, he used to herd sheep in Makkah for its people on carats.
At the age of 12, he went out with his uncle Abu Talib on a business trip to Syria. At the age of 25 Khadija bint Khuwaylid - and she was a Quraysh merchant with honor and wealth - offered him to go out with money for her to Syria as a merchant, and give him the best of what she used to give other merchants. This was because of what reached her about the Messenger of Allah ﷺ from the honesty of his speech, the greatness of his trustworthiness, and nobility of his manners. The Messenger of Allah ﷺ accepted her offer and left with her wealth and her servant Maysarah until he reached Syria. When he returned to Makkah, Khadijah saw her wealth filled with secure and blessed the likes of which she had never seen before.

His Life ﷺ Before Prophethood

The life of the Messenger ﷺ before prophethood was one of virtue and honor. No shortcoming or lapse was known from him. The Messenger of Allah ﷺ grew up being surrounded by the care and protection of Allah from the filth of ignorance. He remained as such until he become known as the most well-mannered of his people, the best of them in character, the most generous of them in account, the best of them in integrity companionship, the greatest of them in forbearance, the most honest of them in speech, and the greatest of them in trustworthiness. He was the furthest of them from indecency and morals that defile men, until he became known to them as “The Truthful and Trustworthy” ﷺ.

6. The Wives of the Prophet ﷺ

He married Khadijah (may Allah be pleased with her) at the age of 25, when he left for Syria to trade on her behalf with her servant Maysarah. Maysarah saw from him that which left him amazed and what he possessed of honesty and trustworthiness. When he returned, Maysarah told his lady what he saw, and she wanted him to marry her. She was the first woman that the Messenger of Allah ﷺ married and he did not marry anyone else until her death. She was the mother to all of his children except for Ibrahim. Khadijah (may Allah be pleased with her) passed away three years before the migration to Madinah (Hijra).

The Names of the Prophet's Wives ﷺ

Khadijah (may Allah be pleased with her)
When Khadijah (may Allah be pleased with her) passed away, the Prophet married Sawdah bint Zum'ah (may Allah be pleased with her)
Then he married Aishah bint Abi Bakr as-Siddiq (may Allah be pleased with them both)
Then he married Hafsa bint 'Umar ibn al-Khattab (may Allah be pleased with them both)
Then he married Zaynab bint Khuzaymah ibn al-Harith (may Allah be pleased with her)
And he married Umm Salamah, whose name was Hind bint Umayyah (may Allah be pleased with her)
And he married Zainab bint Jahsh (may Allah be pleased with her)
Then the Messenger of Allah married Juwairah bint al-Harith (may Allah be pleased with her)
Then he married Umm Habiba (may Allah be pleased with her) whose name was Ramlah, and it is said that her name was Hind bint Abi Sufyan.
Right after the conquest of Khaibar, he married Safiyyah bint Huyyay ibn Akhtab (may Allah be pleased with her)
Then he married Maimoonah bint al-Harith (may Allah be pleased with her) and she was the final marriage of the Messenger of Allah ﷺ.

7. The Children of the Prophet ﷺ

The children of the prophet according to the most authentic opinion were seven: three sons and four daughters.

He had 3 male children: Al-Qasim and that became his kunya (teknonym) and he only lived a few days. The second one was named Abdullah and he was nicknamed at-Tahir (the Pure) and at-Tayyib (the Good). His last son was named Ibrahim.

He had four daughters: Zainab, who was the eldest, Ruqayyah, Umm Kulthoom, and Fatima. The sons and daughters of the Prophet were all from his wife, the Mother of the Believers Khadijah (may Allah be pleased with her), except for Ibrahim who was born to Maria the Coptic, the slave woman gifted to the Prophet ﷺ by al-Muqawqis.

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